Language functions

The following is an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of a variety of functions, which form a part of communication between people, and could be useful in any teaching approach:

accepting or refusing expressing: introducing
advising ability or inability inviting
agreeing or disagreeing certainty or uncertainty justifying
analysing or interpreting comprehension (or lack of)

leave-taking, farewelling, or closing (letter)

apologising or forgiving

approving or disapproving hope

making arrangements

asking for / giving information intention mediating or conciliating
asking for, giving or refusing permission interest, lack of interest, indifference or boredom negotiating

attracting attention

like, dislike or preference

persuading or dissuading

blaming planning
clarifying needs, wishes or wants praising or blaming
comparing obligation promising
complaining opinion

recounting experiences / events

confirming / admitting / denying possibility or impossibility reporting
congratulating or complimenting probability or improbability requesting
contradicting regret responding
defining surprise seeking / requesting information
describing understanding


discussing greeting or welcoming thanking
encouraging hypothesising warning
evaluating identifying  
explaining instructing / directing / ordering

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